PCR was invented in1983 by a Chemist named Kary Mullis, who was later awarded a Nobel Prize in 1993 for this landmark invention.
PCR stands for Polymerase Chain Reaction. PCR Diagnostics, also known as Molecular Diagnostics or Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs means that in the sample being tested, we aim to detect nucleic acid molecules (DNA or RNA) to arrive at a diagnosis or provide clinically useful information for patient care.
DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid while RNA stands for Ribonucleic acid. These nucleic acid molecules are the tapes of life and they are found in all living cells e.g. of humans, bacteria such as TB germs, viruses such as HIV or Coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2), parasites such as hook worms, fungi such as Candida, e.t.c.
Thus, when we detect DNA or RNA of any of these germs, we are able to tell that the sample contains those germs which must therefore be targeted during patient treatment. In the case of humans, when the DNA is changed in any way such as in sickle cell disease, detection of those changes in the DNA means that a certain disease such as sickle cell is present in the patient.
Therefore, through PCR diagnostics, we detect many diseases. At MBN Clinical Laboratories, examples of diseases OR germs detected using PCR/molecular diagnostics include:
- Infectious Diseases PCR Tests at MBN [Read more]
- Drug Resistance PCR Tests at MBN Lab [Read more]
- Genotyping / Speciation PCR tests at MBN Lab [Read more]
- Human Genetic Diseases PCR Diagnostics [Read more]
Infectious Diseases PCR Tests at MBN
- COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR on Naso-or Oropharyngeal Swabs [Read more] Moses: Hyperlink here to COVID Flyer
- HIV DNA PCR, EDTA Blood 2ml
- HIV-1 Viral load PCR, EDTA Blood 3ml
- Hepatitis C PCR, EDTA Blood 2ml
- Hepatitis C Viral Load PCR, EDTA Blood 3ml
- Hepatitis B viral load PCR, EDTA Blood 3ml
- Human Papilloma virus (HPV) PCR on Cervical/Urethral/High vaginal swabs
- Cytomegalovirus (CMV) PCR, EDTA Blood 2ml
- Herpes Simplex virus-Type-1 PCR on CSF or Blood
- Herpes Simplex virus-Type-II PCR on Cervical/Urethral/genital ulcer swabs
- TB PCR on Sputum or other samples
- Chlamydia trachomatis PCR, on Cervical/Urethral/High vaginal swabs
- Neisseria gonorrhea PCR on Cervical/Urethral/High vaginal swabs
- pertussis & B. parapertussis PCR on Naso-or Oropharyngeal Swabs
- Dental & Periodontal bacteria PCR on papertip dental swabs
- EHEC (Enterohaemorrhagic coli) PCR of stool
- Toxoplasma gondii PCR on CSF or Blood
- Pneumocystis jirovecii (PCP) PCR on induced sputum or BAL.
Genotyping / Speciation PCR tests at MBN Lab
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex Speciation PCR
- Atypical Mycobacteria Speciation PCR
- Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Genotyping
- Human Papilloma virus (HPV) Genotyping PCR
- Hepatitis B virus Genotyping PCR
- Hepatitis C virus Genotyping PCR
- HIV Genotyping PCR
Drug Resistance PCR Tests at MBN Lab
- MRSA (methicillin-resistant aureus) PCR
- MRSA & PVL toxin aureus diagnosis PCR
- Helicobacter pylori & its resistance to fluoroquinolones and clarithromycin
- MDR-TB (Multi drug resistant TB) PCR
- XDR-TB (extensively drug resist TB) PCR
- VRE (Vancomycin-resistant enterococci) PCR
- ESBLs (Extended Spectrum β-lactamase) gm-ve bacteria PCR
- HIV Drug resistance PCR (soon beginning)
Human Genetic Diseases PCR Diagnostics
- Ankylosing spondylitis thru detection of HLA-B27
- Primary lactose (milk) intolerance
- Hereditary Haemochromatosis
- Vascular thrombosis disease – Detection of Mutations in Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A & MTHFR genes,
- Assess risk of Type III hyperlipoproteinaemia & coronary heart disease thru detection of polymorphisms in PAI-1 gene & three alleles of the human ApoE gene.
- HLA Typing for Organ donor-recipient matching before transplant
- Hypersensitivity to Abacavir through detection of HLA-B57.